/**************************************************************************\

MODULE: ZZ

SUMMARY:

The class ZZ is used to represent signed, arbitrary length integers.

Routines are provided for all of the basic arithmetic operations, as
well as for some more advanced operations such as primality testing.
Space is automatically managed by the constructors and destructors.

This module also provides routines for generating small primes, and
fast routines for performing modular arithmetic on single-precision
numbers.


\**************************************************************************/

#include <NTL/tools.h>


class ZZ {
public:


   ZZ(); // initial value is 0

   ZZ(const ZZ& a);  // copy constructor
   explicit ZZ(long a);  // promotion constructor

   ~ZZ(); // destructor

   ZZ& operator=(const ZZ& a);  // assignment operator
   ZZ& operator=(long a);

   // typedefs to aid in generic programming
   typedef ZZ_p residue_type;
   typedef ZZX poly_type;


   // ...

};


// NOTE: A ZZ is represented as a sequence of "limbs",
// where each limb is between 0 and 2^{NTL_ZZ_NBITS-1}.

// NTL_ZZ_NBITS is  macros defined in <NTL/ZZ.h>.

// SIZE INVARIANT: the number of bits in a ZZ is always less than
// 2^(NTL_BITS_PER_LONG-4).



/**************************************************************************\

                                 Comparison

\**************************************************************************/



// The usual comparison operators: 

long operator==(const ZZ& a, const ZZ& b);
long operator!=(const ZZ& a, const ZZ& b);
long operator<(const ZZ& a, const ZZ& b);
long operator>(const ZZ& a, const ZZ& b);
long operator<=(const ZZ& a, const ZZ& b);
long operator>=(const ZZ& a, const ZZ& b);

// other stuff:

long sign(const ZZ& a); // returns sign of a (-1, 0, +1)
long IsZero(const ZZ& a); // test for 0
long IsOne(const ZZ& a); // test for 1

long compare(const ZZ& a, const ZZ& b); // returns sign of a-b (-1, 0, or 1).

// PROMOTIONS: the comparison operators and the function compare
// support promotion from long to ZZ on (a, b).


/**************************************************************************\

                                 Addition

\**************************************************************************/


// operator notation:

ZZ operator+(const ZZ& a, const ZZ& b);
ZZ operator-(const ZZ& a, const ZZ& b);
ZZ operator-(const ZZ& a); // unary -

ZZ& operator+=(ZZ& x, const ZZ& a);
ZZ& operator+=(ZZ& x, long a);

ZZ& operator-=(ZZ& x, const ZZ& a);
ZZ& operator-=(ZZ& x, long a);

ZZ& operator++(ZZ& x);  // prefix
void operator++(ZZ& x, int);  // postfix

ZZ& operator--(ZZ& x);  // prefix
void operator--(ZZ& x, int);  // postfix



// procedural versions:

void add(ZZ& x, const ZZ& a, const ZZ& b); // x = a + b
void sub(ZZ& x, const ZZ& a, const ZZ& b); // x = a - b
void SubPos(ZZ& x, const ZZ& a, const ZZ& b); // x = a-b; assumes a >= b >= 0.
void negate(ZZ& x, const ZZ& a); // x = -a

void abs(ZZ& x, const ZZ& a); // x = |a|
ZZ abs(const ZZ& a);

// PROMOTIONS: binary +, -, as well as the procedural versions add, sub
// support promotions from long to ZZ on (a, b).


/**************************************************************************\

                             Multiplication

\**************************************************************************/

// operator notation:

ZZ operator*(const ZZ& a, const ZZ& b);

ZZ& operator*=(ZZ& x, const ZZ& a);
ZZ& operator*=(ZZ& x, long a);

// procedural versions:

void mul(ZZ& x, const ZZ& a, const ZZ& b); // x = a * b

void sqr(ZZ& x, const ZZ& a); // x = a*a
ZZ sqr(const ZZ& a);

// PROMOTIONS: operator * and procedure mul support promotion
// from long to ZZ on (a, b).

/**************************************************************************\

                            Combined Multiply and Add 

\**************************************************************************/


void MulAddTo(ZZ& x, const ZZ& a, const ZZ& b); // x += a*b
void MulAddTo(ZZ& x, const ZZ& a, long b);      // x += a*b


void MulSubFrom(ZZ& x, const ZZ& a, const ZZ& b); // x -= a*b
void MulSubFrom(ZZ& x, const ZZ& a, long b);      // x -= a*b

// NOTE: these are provided for both convenience and efficiency.
// The single-precision versions may be significantly
// faster than the code sequence 
//   mul(tmp, a, b); add(x, x, tmp);
// However, for the single-precision version, the use-case
// that is optimized is for |b| < 2^{NTL_WSP_BOUND}.



/**************************************************************************\

                                 Division

\**************************************************************************/


// operator notation:

ZZ operator/(const ZZ& a, const ZZ& b);
ZZ operator/(const ZZ& a, long  b);

ZZ operator%(const ZZ& a, const ZZ& b);
long operator%(const ZZ& a, long b);

ZZ& operator/=(ZZ& x, const ZZ& b);
ZZ& operator/=(ZZ& x, long b);

ZZ& operator%=(ZZ& x, const ZZ& b);


// procedural versions:

void DivRem(ZZ& q, ZZ& r, const ZZ& a, const ZZ& b);
// q = floor(a/b), r = a - b*q.
// This implies that:
//    |r| < |b|, and if r != 0, sign(r) = sign(b)

void div(ZZ& q, const ZZ& a, const ZZ& b);
// q = floor(a/b)

void rem(ZZ& r, const ZZ& a, const ZZ& b);
// q = floor(a/b), r = a - b*q


// single-precision variants:

long DivRem(ZZ& q, const ZZ& a, long b);
// q = floor(a/b), r = a - b*q, return value is r.

long rem(const ZZ& a, long b);
// q = floor(a/b), r = a - b*q, return value is r.


// divisibility testing:

long divide(ZZ& q, const ZZ& a, const ZZ& b);
long divide(ZZ& q, const ZZ& a, long b);
// if b | a, sets q = a/b and returns 1; otherwise returns 0.

long divide(const ZZ& a, const ZZ& b);
long divide(const ZZ& a, long b);
// if b | a, returns 1; otherwise returns 0.


/**************************************************************************\

                                    GCD's

\**************************************************************************/


void GCD(ZZ& d, const ZZ& a, const ZZ& b);
ZZ GCD(const ZZ& a, const ZZ& b);

// d = gcd(a, b) (which is always non-negative).  Uses a binary GCD
// algorithm.



void XGCD(ZZ& d, ZZ& s, ZZ& t, const ZZ& a, const ZZ& b);

//  d = gcd(a, b) = a*s + b*t.

// The coefficients s and t are defined according to the standard
// Euclidean algorithm applied to |a| and |b|, with the signs then
// adjusted according to the signs of a and b.

// The implementation may or may not Euclid's algorithm,
// but the coefficients a and t are always computed as if 
// it did.


// special-purpose single-precision variants:

long GCD(long a, long b);
// return value is gcd(a, b) (which is always non-negative)

void XGCD(long& d, long& s, long& t, long a, long b);
//  d = gcd(a, b) = a*s + b*t.

//  The coefficients s and t are defined according to the standard
//  Euclidean algorithm applied to |a| and |b|, with the signs then
//  adjusted according to the signs of a and b.



/**************************************************************************\

                             Modular Arithmetic

The following routines perform arithmetic mod n, where n > 1.

All arguments (other than exponents) are assumed to be in the range
0..n-1.  Some routines may check this and raise an error if this
does not hold.  Others may not, and the behaviour is unpredictable
in this case.

\**************************************************************************/



void AddMod(ZZ& x, const ZZ& a, const ZZ& b, const ZZ& n); // x = (a+b)%n
ZZ AddMod(const ZZ& a, const ZZ& b, const ZZ& n);

void SubMod(ZZ& x, const ZZ& a, const ZZ& b, const ZZ& n); // x = (a-b)%n
ZZ SubMod(const ZZ& a, const ZZ& b, const ZZ& n);

void NegateMod(ZZ& x, const ZZ& a, const ZZ& n); // x = -a % n
ZZ NegateMod(const ZZ& a, const ZZ& n);

void MulMod(ZZ& x, const ZZ& a, const ZZ& b, const ZZ& n); // x = (a*b)%n
ZZ MulMod(const ZZ& a, const ZZ& b, const ZZ& n);

void SqrMod(ZZ& x, const ZZ& a, const ZZ& n); // x = a^2 % n
ZZ SqrMod(const ZZ& a, const ZZ& n);




void InvMod(ZZ& x, const ZZ& a, const ZZ& n);
ZZ InvMod(const ZZ& a, const ZZ& n);
// x = a^{-1} mod n (0 <= x < n); error is raised occurs if inverse
// not defined

// If exceptions are enabled, an object of the following class 
// is throw by the InvMod routine if the inverse of a mod n is
// not defined. The methods get_a() and get_n() give read-only
// access to the offending values of a and n.
// This also happens for any indirect call to InvMod, via PowerMod,
// of via inverse computations in ZZ_p.

class InvModErrorObject : public ArithmeticErrorObject {
public:
   InvModErrorObject(const char *s, const ZZ& a, const ZZ& n);
   const ZZ& get_a() const;
   const ZZ& get_n() const;
};

long InvModStatus(ZZ& x, const ZZ& a, const ZZ& n);
// if gcd(a,n) = 1, then return-value = 0, x = a^{-1} mod n;
// otherwise, return-value = 1, x = gcd(a, n)

void PowerMod(ZZ& x, const ZZ& a, const ZZ& e, const ZZ& n);
ZZ PowerMod(const ZZ& a, const ZZ& e, const ZZ& n);

void PowerMod(ZZ& x, const ZZ& a, long e, const ZZ& n);
ZZ PowerMod(const ZZ& a, long e, const ZZ& n);

// x = a^e % n (e may be negative)


// PROMOTIONS: AddMod, SubMod, and MulMod (both procedural and functional
// forms) support promotions from long to ZZ on (a, b).






/**************************************************************************\

                        Single-precision modular arithmetic

These routines implement single-precision modular arithmetic.  If n is
the modulus, all inputs should be in the range 0..n-1.  The number n
itself should be in the range 2..NTL_SP_BOUND-1.

Most of these routines are, of course, implemented as fast inline
functions.  No checking is done that inputs are in range.


\**************************************************************************/




long AddMod(long a, long b, long n); // return (a+b)%n

long SubMod(long a, long b, long n); // return (a-b)%n

long NegateMod(long a, long n); // return (-a)%n

long MulMod(long a, long b, long n); // return (a*b)%n

long MulMod(long a, long b, long n, mulmod_t ninv);
// return (a*b)%n.  
//
// Usually faster than plain MulMod when n is fixed for many
// invocations. The value ninv should be precomputed as 
//   mulmod_t ninv = PrepMulMod(n);

mulmod_t PrepMulMod(long n);
// Prepare auxilliary data for MulMod.

long MulModPrecon(long a, long b, long n, mulmod_precon_t bninv);
// return (a*b)%n.  
//
// Usually much faster than MulMod when both b and n are fixed for 
// many invocations.  The value bninv should be precomputed as
//   mulmod_precon_t bninv = PrepMulModPrecon(b, n);
// or as
//   mulmod_precon_t bninv = PrepMulModPrecon(b, n, ninv);
// where ninv = PrepMulMod(n).

mulmod_precon_t PrepMulModPrecon(long b, long n);
mulmod_precon_t PrepMulModPrecon(long b, long n, mulmod_t ninv);
// Prepare auxilliary data for MulModPrecon.
// In the second version, ninv = PrepMulMod(n).



long InvMod(long a, long n);
// computes a^{-1} mod n.  Error is raised if undefined.

long InvModStatus(long& x, long a, long n);
// if gcd(a,n) = 1, then return-value = 0, x = a^{-1} mod n;
// otherwise, return-value = 1, x = gcd(a, n)

long PowerMod(long a, long e, long n);
// computes a^e mod n (e may be negative)

// The following are vector versions of the MulMod routines
// They each compute x[i] = (a[i] * b)% n   i = 0..k-1 

void VectorMulMod(long k, long *x, const long *a, long b, long n);

void VectorMulMod(long k, long *x, const long *a, long b, long n,
                  mulmod_t ninv);
// ninv = PrepMulMod(n)

void VectorMulModPrecon(long k, long *x, const long *a, long b, long n,
                        mulmod_precon_t bninv);
// bninv = MulModPrecon(b, n)


// The following is provided for lagacy support, but is not generally 
// recommended:

long MulDivRem(long& q, long a, long b, long n, muldivrem_t bninv);
// return (a*b)%n, set q = (a*b)/n.  
// The value bninv should be precomputed as 
//   muldivrem_t bninv = PrepMulDivRem(b, n);
// or as
//   muldivrem_t bninv = PrepMulDivRem(b, n, ninv);
// where ninv = PrepMod(n).

 muldivrem_t PrepMulDivRem(long b, long n);
 muldivrem_t PrepMulDivRem(long b, long n, mulmod_t ninv);
// Prepare auxilliary data for MulDivRem.
// In the second version, ninv = PrepMulMod(n).

// NOTE: despite the similarity in the interface to MulModPrecon,
// this routine is typically implemented in a very different way,
// and usually much less efficient.
// It was initially designed for specialized, internal use
// within NTL, but has been a part of the documented NTL
// interface for some time, and remains so even after the
// v9.0 upgrade.



//
// Compatibility notes:
//
// The types mulmod_t and muldivrem_t were introduced in NTL v9.0, as were the
// functions PrepMulMod and PrepMulDivRem.  Prior to this, the built-in type
// "double" played the role of these types, and the user was expected to
// compute PrepMulMod(n) as 1/double(n) and PrepMulDivRem(b, n) as
// double(b)/double(n).
// 
// By abstracting these types, NTL is able to exploit a wider variety of
// implementation strategies.  Some old client code may break, but the compiler
// will easily find the code that needs to be updated, and the updates are
// quite mechanical (unless the old code implicitly made use of the assumption
// that NTL_SP_NBITS <= NTL_DOUBLE_PRECISION-3).
//
// It is highly recommended that old client codes be updated.  However, one may
// build NTL with the configuration option NTL_LEGACY_SP_MULMOD=on, which will
// cause the interfaces and implementations to revert to their pre-v9.0
// definitions.  This option will also make the following (obslete) function
// visible:

    long MulMod2(long a, long b, long n, double bninv);
    // return (a*b)%n.  bninv = ((double) b)/((double) n).  This is faster
    // if both n and b are fixed for many multiplications.
    // Note: This is OBSOLETE -- use MulModPrecon.


// As of v9.2 of NTL, this new interface allows for 60-bit moduli on most
// 64-bit machines.  The requirement is that a working 128-bit integer type is
// available.  For current versions of gcc, clang, and icc, this is available
// vie the types __int128_t and __uint128_t.  If this requirement is met (which
// is verified during NTL installation), then a "long long" implementation for
// MulMod is used.  In versions 9.0 and 9.1 of NTL, a "long double"
// implementation was introduced, which utilized the 80-bit extended double
// precision hardware on x86 machines.  This also allows for 60-bit moduli on
// 64-bit machines.

// If 128-bit integer types are not avalable, or if you build NTL with the
// NTL_DISABLE_LONGLONG=on flag, NTL will attempt to use the extended double
// precision hardware to still allow 60-bit moduli.  If that is not possible,
// or if you build NTL with the NTL_DISABLE_LONGDOUBLE=on flag, then NTL will
// fall back to its "classical" implementation (pre-9.0) that relies on
// double-precision arithmetic and imposes a 50-bit limit on moduli.  

// Note that in on 64-bit machines, either the "long long" or "long double"
// implementations could support 62-bit moduli, rather than 60-bit moduli.
// However, the restriction to 60-bits speeds up a few things, and so seems
// like a good trade off.  This is subject to change in the future.

// Also note that all of these enhancements introduced since v9.0 are only
// available to builds of NTL that use GMP.  Builds that don't use GMP will
// still be restricted to 50-bit moduli on 64-bit machines. 

// On machines with 32-bit longs, moduli will be resricted to 30 bits,
// regardless on the implementation, which will be based on "long long"
// arithmetic (if a 64-bit integer type is available), or on double-precision
// floating point (otherwise).

// One can detect the new (v9) interface by testing if the macro
// NTL_HAVE_MULMOD_T is defined.  The following code can be used to make
// new-style NTL clients work with either older (pre-9.0) versions of NTL or
// newer versions (post-9.0):


   #ifndef NTL_HAVE_MULMOD_T
      namespace NTL {
         typedef double mulmod_t;
         typedef double muldivrem_t;

         static inline double PrepMulMod(long n)
         { return double(1L)/double(n); }

         static inline double PrepMulDivRem(long b, long n, double ninv)
         { return double(b)*ninv; }

         static inline double PrepMulDivRem(long b, long n)
         { return double(b)/double(n); }

         static inline double PrepMulModPrecon(long b, long n)
         { return PrepMulModPrecon(b, n, PrepMulMod(n)); }
      }
   #endif





/**************************************************************************\

                               Shift Operations

LeftShift by n means multiplication by 2^n
RightShift by n means division by 2^n, with truncation toward zero
  (so the sign is preserved).

A negative shift amount reverses the direction of the shift.

\**************************************************************************/

// operator notation:

ZZ operator<<(const ZZ& a, long n);
ZZ operator>>(const ZZ& a, long n);

ZZ& operator<<=(ZZ& x, long n);
ZZ& operator>>=(ZZ& x, long n);

// procedural versions:

void LeftShift(ZZ& x, const ZZ& a, long n);
ZZ LeftShift(const ZZ& a, long n);

void RightShift(ZZ& x, const ZZ& a, long n);
ZZ RightShift(const ZZ& a, long n);



/**************************************************************************\

                              Bits and Bytes

\**************************************************************************/



long MakeOdd(ZZ& x);
// removes factors of 2 from x, returns the number of 2's removed
// returns 0 if x == 0

long NumTwos(const ZZ& x);
// returns max e such that 2^e divides x if x != 0, and returns 0 if x == 0.

long IsOdd(const ZZ& a); // test if a is odd

long NumBits(const ZZ& a);
long NumBits(long a);
// returns the number of bits in binary represenation of |a|; 
// NumBits(0) = 0


long bit(const ZZ& a, long k);
long bit(long a, long k);
// returns bit k of |a|, position 0 being the low-order bit.
// If  k < 0 or k >= NumBits(a), returns 0.


void trunc(ZZ& x, const ZZ& a, long k);
// x = low order k bits of |a|. 
// If k <= 0, x = 0.

// two functional variants:
ZZ trunc_ZZ(const ZZ& a, long k);
long trunc_long(const ZZ& a, long k);

long SetBit(ZZ& x, long p);
// returns original value of p-th bit of |a|, and replaces p-th bit of
// a by 1 if it was zero; low order bit is bit 0; error if p < 0;
// the sign of x is maintained

long SwitchBit(ZZ& x, long p);
// returns original value of p-th bit of |a|, and switches the value
// of p-th bit of a; low order bit is bit 0; error if p < 0
// the sign of x is maintained

long weight(const ZZ& a); // returns Hamming weight of |a|
long weight(long a);

// bit-wise Boolean operations, procedural form:

void bit_and(ZZ& x, const ZZ& a, const ZZ& b); // x = |a| AND |b|
void bit_or(ZZ& x, const ZZ& a, const ZZ& b); // x = |a| OR |b|
void bit_xor(ZZ& x, const ZZ& a, const ZZ& b); // x = |a| XOR |b|

// bit-wise Boolean operations, operator notation:

ZZ operator&(const ZZ& a, const ZZ& b);
ZZ operator|(const ZZ& a, const ZZ& b);
ZZ operator^(const ZZ& a, const ZZ& b);

// PROMOTIONS: the above bit-wise operations (both procedural 
// and operator forms) provide promotions from long to ZZ on (a, b).

ZZ& operator&=(ZZ& x, const ZZ& b);
ZZ& operator&=(ZZ& x, long b);

ZZ& operator|=(ZZ& x, const ZZ& b);
ZZ& operator|=(ZZ& x, long b);

ZZ& operator^=(ZZ& x, const ZZ& b);
ZZ& operator^=(ZZ& x, long b);



// conversions between byte sequences and ZZ's

void ZZFromBytes(ZZ& x, const unsigned char *p, long n);
ZZ ZZFromBytes(const unsigned char *p, long n);
// x = sum(p[i]*256^i, i=0..n-1). 
// NOTE: in the unusual event that a char is more than 8 bits, 
//       only the low order 8 bits of p[i] are used

void BytesFromZZ(unsigned char *p, const ZZ& a, long n);
// Computes p[0..n-1] such that abs(a) == sum(p[i]*256^i, i=0..n-1) mod 256^n.

long NumBytes(const ZZ& a);
long NumBytes(long a);
// returns # of base 256 digits needed to represent abs(a).
// NumBytes(0) == 0.




/**************************************************************************\

                            Pseudo-Random Numbers

\**************************************************************************/


// Routines for generating pseudo-random numbers.

// These routines generate high qualtity, cryptographically strong
// pseudo-random numbers.  They are implemented so that their behaviour
// is completely independent of the underlying hardware and long 
// integer implementation.  Note, however, that other routines 
// throughout NTL use pseudo-random numbers, and because of this,
// the word size of the machine can impact the sequence of numbers
// seen by a client program.


void SetSeed(const ZZ& s);
void SetSeed(const unsigned char *data, long dlen);
void SetSeed(const RandomStream& s);
// Initializes generator with a "seed".

// The first version hashes the binary representation of s to obtain a key for
// a low-level RandomStream object (see below).

// The second version does the same, hashing the first dlen bytes pointed to by
// data to obtain a key for the RandomStream object.

// The third version initializes the PRG state directly with the given
// RandomStream object.

// EXCEPTIONS: strong ES


void RandomBnd(ZZ& x, const ZZ& n);
ZZ RandomBnd(const ZZ& n);
void RandomBnd(long& x, long n);
long RandomBnd(long n);
// x = pseudo-random number in the range 0..n-1, or 0 if n <= 0
// EXCEPTIONS: strong ES

void VectorRandomBnd(long k, long *x, long n);
// equivalent to x[i] = RandomBnd(n) for i in [0..k), but faster
// EXCEPTIONS: strong ES


void RandomBits(ZZ& x, long l);
ZZ RandomBits_ZZ(long l);
void RandomBits(long& x, long l);
long RandomBits_long(long l);
// x = pseudo-random number in the range 0..2^l-1.
// EXCEPTIONS: strong ES

void RandomLen(ZZ& x, long l);
ZZ RandomLen_ZZ(long l);
void RandomLen(long& x, long l);
long RandomLen_long(long l);
// x = psuedo-random number with precisely l bits,
// or 0 of l <= 0.
// EXCEPTIONS: strong ES

unsigned long RandomBits_ulong(long l);
// returns a pseudo-random number in the range 0..2^l-1
// EXCEPTIONS: strong ES

unsigned long RandomWord();
// returns a word filled with pseudo-random bits.
// Equivalent to RandomBits_ulong(NTL_BITS_PER_LONG).
// EXCEPTIONS: strong ES



class RandomStream {
// The low-level pseudo-random generator (PRG).
// After initializing it with a key, one can effectively read an unbounded
// stream of pseudorandom bytes

public:

   explicit RandomStream(const unsigned char *key);
   // key should point to an array of NTL_PRG_KEYLEN bytes
   // EXCEPTIONS: nothrow

   void get(unsigned char *res, long n);
   // read the next n bytes from the stream and store to location pointed to by
   // res
   // EXCEPTIONS: throws a LogicError exception if n is negative

   RandomStream(const RandomStream&); // default
   RandomStream& operator=(const RandomStream&); // default
   // EXCEPTIONS: nothrow
};


RandomStream& GetCurrentRandomStream();
// get reference to the current PRG state. If SetSeed has not been called, it
// is called with a default value (which should be unique to each
// process/thread).  NOTE: this is a reference to a thread-local object, so
// different threads will use different PRG's, and by default, each will be
// initialized with a unique seed.
// NOTE: using this reference, you can copy the current PRG state or assign a
// different value to it; however, see the helper class RandomStreamPush below,
// which may be more convenient.
// EXCEPTIONS: strong ES



class RandomStreamPush {
// RAII for saving/restoring current PRG state
public:
   RandomStreamPush();   // save a copy of the current PRG state
                     // EXCEPTIONS: strong ES

   ~RandomStreamPush();  // restore the saveed copy of the PRG state

private:
   RandomStreamPush(const RandomStreamPush&); // disable
   void operator=(const RandomStreamPush&); // disable
};


void DeriveKey(unsigned char *key, long klen,
               const unsigned char *data, long dlen);
// utility routine to derive from the byte string (data, dlen) a byte string
// (key, klen).  Heuristically, if (data, dlen) has high entropy, then (key,
// klen) should be pseudorandom.  This routine is also used internally to
// derive PRG keys.
// EXCEPTIONS: throws LogicError exception if klen < 0 or hlen < 0



/**************************************************************************\

             Incremental Chinese Remaindering

\**************************************************************************/

long CRT(ZZ& a, ZZ& p, const ZZ& A, const ZZ& P);
long CRT(ZZ& a, ZZ& p, long A, long P);

// 0 <= A < P, (p, P) = 1; computes a' such that a' = a mod p, 
// a' = A mod P, and -p*P/2 < a' <= p*P/2; sets a := a', p := p*P, and
// returns 1 if a's value has changed, otherwise 0


/**************************************************************************\

                  Rational Reconstruction

\**************************************************************************/

long ReconstructRational(ZZ& a, ZZ& b, const ZZ& x, const ZZ& m,
                         const ZZ& a_bound, const ZZ& b_bound);

// 0 <= x < m, m > 2 * a_bound * b_bound,
// a_bound >= 0, b_bound > 0

// This routine either returns 0, leaving a and b unchanged, 
// or returns 1 and sets a and b so that
//   (1) a = b x (mod m),
//   (2) |a| <= a_bound, 0 < b <= b_bound, and
//   (3) gcd(m, b) = gcd(a, b).

// If there exist a, b satisfying (1), (2), and 
//   (3') gcd(m, b) = 1,
// then a, b are uniquely determined if we impose the additional
// condition that gcd(a, b) = 1;  moreover, if such a, b exist,
// then these values are returned by the routine.

// Unless the calling routine can *a priori* guarantee the existence
// of a, b satisfying (1), (2), and (3'),
// then to ensure correctness, the calling routine should check
// that gcd(m, b) = 1, or equivalently, gcd(a, b) = 1.

// This is implemented using a variant of Lehmer's extended
// Euclidean algorithm.

// Literature:  see G. Collins and M. Encarnacion, J. Symb. Comp. 20:287-297, 
// 1995; P. Wang, M. Guy, and J. Davenport, SIGSAM Bulletin 16:2-3, 1982. 


/**************************************************************************\

                                Primality Testing 
                           and Prime Number Generation

\**************************************************************************/

void GenPrime(ZZ& n, long l, long err = 80);
ZZ GenPrime_ZZ(long l, long err = 80);
long GenPrime_long(long l, long err = 80);

// GenPrime generates a random prime n of length l so that the
// probability that the resulting n is composite is bounded by 2^(-err).
// This calls the routine RandomPrime below, and uses results of 
// Damgard, Landrock, Pomerance to "optimize" 
// the number of Miller-Rabin trials at the end.

void GenGermainPrime(ZZ& n, long l, long err = 80);
ZZ GenGermainPrime_ZZ(long l, long err = 80);
long GenGermainPrime_long(long l, long err = 80);

// A (Sophie) Germain prime is a prime p such that p' = 2*p+1 is also a prime.
// Such primes are useful for cryptographic applications...cryptographers
// sometimes call p' a "strong" or "safe" prime.
// GenGermainPrime generates a random Germain prime n of length l
// so that the probability that either n or 2*n+1 is not a prime
// is bounded by 2^(-err).


long ProbPrime(const ZZ& n, long NumTrials = 10);
long ProbPrime(long n, long NumTrials = 10);
// performs up to NumTrials Miller-witness tests (after some trial division).

void RandomPrime(ZZ& n, long l, long NumTrials=10);
ZZ RandomPrime_ZZ(long l, long NumTrials=10);
long RandomPrime_long(long l, long NumTrials=10);
// n = random l-bit prime.  Uses ProbPrime with NumTrials.

void NextPrime(ZZ& n, const ZZ& m, long NumTrials=10);
ZZ NextPrime(const ZZ& m, long NumTrials=10);
// n = smallest prime >= m.  Uses ProbPrime with NumTrials.

long NextPrime(long m, long NumTrials=10);
// Single precision version of the above.
// Result will always be bounded by NTL_ZZ_SP_BOUND, and an
// error is raised if this cannot be satisfied.

long MillerWitness(const ZZ& n, const ZZ& w);
// Tests if w is a witness to compositeness a la Miller.  Assumption: n is
// odd and positive, 0 <= w < n.
// Return value of 1 implies n is composite.
// Return value of 0 indicates n might be prime.


/**************************************************************************\

                               Exponentiation

\**************************************************************************/


void power(ZZ& x, const ZZ& a, long e); // x = a^e (e >= 0)
ZZ power(const ZZ& a, long e);

void power(ZZ& x, long a, long e);

// two functional variants:
ZZ power_ZZ(long a, long e);
long power_long(long a, long e);

void power2(ZZ& x, long e); // x = 2^e (e >= 0)
ZZ power2_ZZ(long e);


/**************************************************************************\

                               Square Roots

\**************************************************************************/


void SqrRoot(ZZ& x, const ZZ& a); // x = floor(a^{1/2}) (a >= 0)
ZZ SqrRoot(const ZZ& a);

long SqrRoot(long a);




/**************************************************************************\

                    Jacobi symbol and modular square roots

\**************************************************************************/


long Jacobi(const ZZ& a, const ZZ& n);
//  compute Jacobi symbol of a and n; assumes 0 <= a < n, n odd

void SqrRootMod(ZZ& x, const ZZ& a, const ZZ& n);
ZZ SqrRootMod(const ZZ& a, const ZZ& n);
//  computes square root of a mod n; assumes n is an odd prime, and
//  that a is a square mod n, with 0 <= a < n.




/**************************************************************************\

                             Input/Output

I/O Format:

Numbers are written in base 10, with an optional minus sign.

\**************************************************************************/

istream& operator>>(istream& s, ZZ& x);
ostream& operator<<(ostream& s, const ZZ& a);



/**************************************************************************\

                            Miscellany

\**************************************************************************/


// The following macros are defined:

#define NTL_ZZ_NBITS (...)  // number of bits in a limb;
                            // a ZZ is represented as a sequence of limbs.

#define NTL_SP_NBITS (...)  // max number of bits in a "single-precision" number

#define NTL_WSP_NBITS (...)  // max number of bits in a "wide single-precision"
                             // number

// The following relations hold:
//    30 <= NTL_SP_NBITS <= NTL_WSP_NBITS 
//       <= min(NTL_ZZ_NBITS, NTL_BITS_PER_LONG-2)

// Note that NTL_ZZ_NBITS may be less than, equal to, or greater than
// NTL_BITS_PER_LONG  -- no particular relationship should be assumed to hold.
// In particular, expressions like (1L << NTL_ZZ_BITS) might overflow.
//
// "single-precision" numbers are meant to be used in conjunction with the
//  single-precision modular arithmetic routines.
//
// "wide single-precision" numbers are meant to be used in conjunction
//  with the ZZ arithmetic routines for optimal efficiency.

// The following auxilliary macros are also defined

#define NTL_FRADIX (...) // double-precision value of 2^NTL_ZZ_NBITS

#define NTL_SP_BOUND (1L << NTL_SP_NBITS)
#define NTL_WSP_BOUND (1L << NTL_WSP_NBITS)


// Backward compatability notes:
//
// Prior to version 5.0, the macro NTL_NBITS was defined,
// along with the macro NTL_RADIX defined to be (1L << NTL_NBITS).
// While these macros are still available when using NTL's traditional 
// long integer package (i.e., when NTL_GMP_LIP is not set), 
// they are not available when using the GMP as the primary long integer 
// package (i.e., when NTL_GMP_LIP is set).
// Furthermore, when writing portable programs, one should avoid these macros.
// Note that when using traditional long integer arithmetic, we have
//    NTL_ZZ_NBITS = NTL_SP_NBITS = NTL_WSP_NBITS = NTL_NBITS.
//
// Prior to version 9.0, one could also assume that 
//   NTL_SP_NBITS <= NTL_DOUBLE_PRECISION-3;
// however, this is no longer the case (unless NTL is build with he NTL_LEGACY_SP_MULMOD
// flag turned on).


// Here are some additional functions.

void clear(ZZ& x); // x = 0
void set(ZZ& x);   // x = 1

void swap(ZZ& x, ZZ& y);
// swap x and y (done by "pointer swapping", if possible).

double log(const ZZ& a);
// returns double precision approximation to log(a)

long NextPowerOfTwo(long m);
// returns least nonnegative k such that 2^k >= m

long ZZ::size() const;
// a.size() returns the number of limbs of |a|; the
// size of 0 is 0.

void ZZ::SetSize(long k)
// a.SetSize(k) does not change the value of a, but simply pre-allocates
// space for k limbs.

long ZZ::SinglePrecision() const;
// a.SinglePrecision() is a predicate that tests if abs(a) < NTL_SP_BOUND

long ZZ::WideSinglePrecision() const;
// a.WideSinglePrecision() is a predicate that tests if abs(a) < NTL_WSP_BOUND

long digit(const ZZ& a, long k);
// returns k-th limb of |a|, position 0 being the low-order
// limb.
// OBSOLETE: this routine is only available when using NTL's traditional
// long integer arithmetic, and should not be used in programs
// that are meant to be portable. You should instead use the 
// routine ZZ_limbs_get, defined in ZZ_limbs.h.

void ZZ::kill();
// a.kill() sets a to zero and frees the space held by a.

void ZZ::swap(ZZ& x);
// swap method (done by "pointer swapping" if possible)

ZZ::ZZ(INIT_SIZE_TYPE, long k);
// ZZ(INIT_SIZE, k) initializes to 0, but space is pre-allocated so
// that numbers x with x.size() <= k can be stored without
// re-allocation.

static const ZZ& ZZ::zero();
// ZZ::zero() yields a read-only reference to zero, if you need it.




/**************************************************************************\

                    Small Prime Generation

primes are generated in sequence, starting at 2, and up to a maximum
that is no more than min(NTL_SP_BOUND, 2^30).

Example: print the primes up to 1000

#include <NTL/ZZ.h>

main()
{
   PrimeSeq s;
   long p;

   p = s.next();
   while (p <= 1000) {
      cout << p << "\n";
      p = s.next();
   }
}

\**************************************************************************/



class PrimeSeq {
public:
   PrimeSeq();
   ~PrimeSeq();

   long next();
   // returns next prime in the sequence.  returns 0 if list of small
   // primes is exhausted.

   void reset(long b);
   // resets generator so that the next prime in the sequence is the
   // smallest prime >= b.

private:
   PrimeSeq(const PrimeSeq&);        // disabled
   void operator=(const PrimeSeq&);  // disabled

};