/**************************************************************************\

MODULE: ZZ_pE

SUMMARY:

The class ZZ_pE is used to represent polynomials in Z_p[X] modulo a
polynomial P.  The modulus P may be any polynomial with deg(P) > 0,
not necessarily irreducible.  The modulus p defining Z_p need
not be prime either.

Objects of the class ZZ_pE are represented as a ZZ_pX of degree < deg(P).

An executing program maintains a "current modulus", which is set to P
using ZZ_pE::init(P).  The current modulus for ZZ_pE (as well as for ZZ_p)
*must* be initialized before an operations on ZZ_pE's are performed.

The modulus may be changed, and a mechanism is provided for saving and
restoring a modulus (see classes ZZ_pEPush and ZZ_pEContext below).


\**************************************************************************/

#include <NTL/ZZ_pX.h>

class ZZ_pE {
public:

   ZZ_pE(); // initial value 0

   ZZ_pE(const ZZ_pE& a); // copy constructor
   explicit ZZ_pE(const ZZ_p& a); // promotion
   explicit ZZ_pE(long a); // promotion

   ZZ_pE& operator=(const ZZ_pE& a); // assignment
   ZZ_pE& operator=(const ZZ_p& a); // assignment
   ZZ_pE& operator=(long a); // assignment

   ~ZZ_pE(); // destructor

   ZZ_pE(ZZ_pE&& a);
   // move constructor (C++11 only)
   // declared noexcept unless NTL_EXCEPTIONS flag is set

   ZZ_pE& operator=(ZZ_pE&& a);
   // move assignment (C++11 only)
   // declared noexcept unless NTL_EXCEPTIONS flag is set

   static void init(const ZZ_pX& P);
   // ZZ_pE::init(P) initializes the current modulus to P;
   // required: deg(P) >= 1.

   static const ZZ_pXModulus& modulus();
   // ZZ_pE::modulus() yields read-only reference to the current modulus 

   static long degree();
   // ZZ_pE::degree() returns deg(P)


   // typedefs to aid generic programming
   typedef ZZ_pX rep_type;
   typedef ZZ_pEContext context_type;
   typedef ZZ_pEBak bak_type;
   typedef ZZ_pEPush push_type;
   typedef ZZ_pEX poly_type;

};


const ZZ_pX& rep(const ZZ_pE& a); // read-only access to representation of a



/**************************************************************************\

                                  Comparison

\**************************************************************************/

long operator==(const ZZ_pE& a, const ZZ_pE& b);
long operator!=(const ZZ_pE& a, const ZZ_pE& b);

long IsZero(const ZZ_pE& a);  // test for 0
long IsOne(const ZZ_pE& a);  // test for 1

// PROMOTIONS: ==, != promote {long, ZZ_p} to ZZ_pE on (a, b).


/**************************************************************************\

                                    Addition 

\**************************************************************************/

// operator notation:

ZZ_pE operator+(const ZZ_pE& a, const ZZ_pE& b);

ZZ_pE operator-(const ZZ_pE& a, const ZZ_pE& b);
ZZ_pE operator-(const ZZ_pE& a);

ZZ_pE& operator+=(ZZ_pE& x, const ZZ_pE& a);
ZZ_pE& operator+=(ZZ_pE& x, const ZZ_p& a);
ZZ_pE& operator+=(ZZ_pE& x, long a);

ZZ_pE& operator++(ZZ_pE& x); // prefix
void operator++(ZZ_pE& x, int); // postfix

ZZ_pE& operator-=(ZZ_pE& x, const ZZ_pE& a);
ZZ_pE& operator-=(ZZ_pE& x, const ZZ_p& a);
ZZ_pE& operator-=(ZZ_pE& x, long a);

ZZ_pE& operator--(ZZ_pE& x); // prefix
void operator--(ZZ_pE& x, int); // postfix

// procedural versions:

void add(ZZ_pE& x, const ZZ_pE& a, const ZZ_pE& b); // x = a + b
void sub(ZZ_pE& x, const ZZ_pE& a, const ZZ_pE& b); // x = a - b 
void negate(ZZ_pE& x, const ZZ_pE& a); // x = - a 

// PROMOTIONS: +, -, add, sub promote {long, ZZ_p} to ZZ_pE on (a, b).


/**************************************************************************\

                                  Multiplication 

\**************************************************************************/


// operator notation:

ZZ_pE operator*(const ZZ_pE& a, const ZZ_pE& b);

ZZ_pE& operator*=(ZZ_pE& x, const ZZ_pE& a);
ZZ_pE& operator*=(ZZ_pE& x, const ZZ_p& a);
ZZ_pE& operator*=(ZZ_pE& x, long a);

// procedural versions:


void mul(ZZ_pE& x, const ZZ_pE& a, const ZZ_pE& b); // x = a * b

void sqr(ZZ_pE& x, const ZZ_pE& a); // x = a^2
ZZ_pE sqr(const ZZ_pE& a);

// PROMOTIONS: *, mul promote {long, ZZ_p} to ZZ_pE on (a, b).



/**************************************************************************\

                                     Division

\**************************************************************************/


// operator notation:

ZZ_pE operator/(const ZZ_pE& a, const ZZ_pE& b);

ZZ_pE& operator/=(ZZ_pE& x, const ZZ_pE& a);
ZZ_pE& operator/=(ZZ_pE& x, const ZZ_p& a);
ZZ_pE& operator/=(ZZ_pE& x, long a);


// procedural versions:

void div(ZZ_pE& x, const ZZ_pE& a, const ZZ_pE& b);
// x = a/b.  If b is not invertible, an error is raised.

void inv(ZZ_pE& x, const ZZ_pE& a);
ZZ_pE inv(const ZZ_pE& a);
// x = 1/a

PROMOTIONS: /, div promote {long, ZZ_p} to ZZ_pE on (a, b).


/**************************************************************************\

                                  Exponentiation

\**************************************************************************/



void power(ZZ_pE& x, const ZZ_pE& a, const ZZ& e);
ZZ_pE power(const ZZ_pE& a, const ZZ& e);

void power(ZZ_pE& x, const ZZ_pE& a, long e);
ZZ_pE power(const ZZ_pE& a, long e);

// x = a^e (e may be negative)



/**************************************************************************\

                               Random Elements

\**************************************************************************/


void random(ZZ_pE& x);
ZZ_pE random_ZZ_pE();
// x = random element in ZZ_pE.

/**************************************************************************\

                               Norms and Traces

\**************************************************************************/



void trace(ZZ_p& x, const ZZ_pE& a);  // x = trace of a
ZZ_p trace(const ZZ_pE& a);

void norm(ZZ_p& x, const ZZ_pE& a);   // x = norm of a
ZZ_p norm(const ZZ_pE& a);



/**************************************************************************\

                                Input/Output

\**************************************************************************/


ostream& operator<<(ostream& s, const ZZ_pE& a);

istream& operator>>(istream& s, ZZ_pE& x);
// a ZZ_pX is read and reduced mod p


/**************************************************************************\

                       Modulus Switching 

A class ZZ_pEPush is provided for "backing up" the current modulus
and installing a new one.

Here is what you do to save the current modulus, temporarily
set it to P, and automatically restore it:

   { 
      ZZ_pEPush push(P); 

      ...

   }

The constructor for push will save the current modulus, and install P as the
current modulus.  The destructor for push will restore the old modulus when the
scope enclosing it exits.  This is the so-called RAII (resource acquisition is
initialization) paradigm.

You could also do the following:

   {
      ZZ_pEPush push; // just backup current modulus

        ...

      ZZ_pE::init(P1); // install P1 

        ...

      ZZ_pE::init(P2); // install P2

      // reinstall original modulus as close of scope
   }

      
The ZZ_pEPush interface is good for implementing simple stack-like
modulus "context switching".  For more general context switching,
see ZZ_pEContext below.  There is also an older ZZ_pEBak class
that may also be useful.

..........................................................................

It is critical that ZZ_pE objects created under one ZZ_pE modulus are not used in
any non-trivial way "out of context", i.e., under a different (or undefined)
ZZ_pE modulus.  However, for ease-of-use, some operations may be safely
performed out of context.  These safe operations include: the default and copy
constructor, the destructor, and the assignment operator.  In addition is is
generally safe to read any ZZ_pE object out of context (i.e., printing it out, or
fetching its underlying representive using the rep() function).

Any unsafe uses out of context are not in general checked, and may 
lead to unpredictable behavior.


\**************************************************************************/


// A convenient interface for common cases

class ZZ_pEPush {

public:
ZZ_pEPush();  // backup current modulus
explicit ZZ_pEPush(const ZZ_pX& P);
explicit ZZ_pEPush(const ZZ_pEContext& context);
  // backup current modulus and install the given one

private:
ZZ_pEPush(const ZZ_pEPush&); // disabled
void operator=(const ZZ_pEPush&); // disabled

};



// more general context switching:
// A ZZ_pEContext object has a modulus Q (possibly "null"),

class ZZ_pEContext {


public:

ZZ_pEContext(); // Q = "null"
explicit ZZ_pEContext(const ZZ_pX& P); // Q = P

void save(); // Q = CurrentModulus
void restore() const; // CurrentModulus = Q

ZZ_pEContext(const ZZ_pEContext&);  // copy
ZZ_pEContext& operator=(const ZZ_pEContext&); // assignment
~ZZ_pEContext(); // destructor


};


// An older interface:
// To describe this logic, think of a ZZ_pEBak object
// of having two components: a modulus Q (possibly "null") and 
// an "auto-restore bit" b.


class ZZ_pEBak {
public:


   ZZ_pEBak();  // Q = "null", b = 0

   ~ZZ_pEBak();  // if (b) CurrentModulus = Q

   void save();  // Q = CurrentModulus, b = 1 
   void restore();  // CurrentModulus = Q, b = 0


private:
   ZZ_pEBak(const ZZ_pEBak&);  // copy disabled
   void operator=(const ZZ_pEBak&);  // assignment disabled
};






/**************************************************************************\

                               Miscellany

\**************************************************************************/

void clear(ZZ_pE& x); // x = 0
void set(ZZ_pE& x); // x = 1

static const ZZ_pE& ZZ_pE::zero();
// ZZ_pE::zero() yields a read-only reference to zero

void ZZ_pE::swap(ZZ_pE& x);
void swap(ZZ_pE& x, ZZ_pE& y);
// swap (done by "pointer swapping", if possible).

static ZZ& ZZ_pE::cardinality();
// yields the cardinality, i.e., p^{ZZ_pE::degree()}

ZZ_pE::ZZ_pE(INIT_NO_ALLOC_TYPE);
// special constructor: invoke as ZZ_pE x(INIT_NO_ALLOC);
// initializes x to 0, but allocates no space (this is now the default)

ZZ_pE::ZZ_pE(INIT_ALLOC_TYPE);
// special constructor: invoke as ZZ_pE x(INIT_ALLOC);
// initializes x to 0, but allocates space

ZZ_pE::allocate();
// useful in conjunction with the INIT_NO_ALLLOC constructor:
// x.allocate() will pre-allocate space for x, using the
// current modulus